An Investigator’s Guide to Blockchain, Bitcoin and Wallet ...

semi-quick answers to common questions of new people

so people often ask similar questions over here and because they are getting probably kinda annoying over time to many I just try to answer as many as I find. if you have more that would fit here, add them to the comments

submitted by My1xT to ledgerwallet [link] [comments]

Upcoming Major Riecoin 0.20 Upgrade

Upcoming Major Riecoin 0.20 Upgrade
A new major Riecoin upgrade is planned, and includes a hard fork. Below is a summary of the changes so far and the hard fork improvements. More details can be found on BitcoinTalk. Feel free to ask Pttn there or on Discord if you have questions regarding the update.
The first step of this upgrade was to update the base code to Bitcoin’s 0.20, which is done. You can find the experimental code at the Github repository. Experimental binaries can also be downloaded here. Despite their prerelease status, they should work fine, though please backup your wallets if you plan to use 0.20, just in case.
Pool operators and other advanced Riecoin users should start looking into the changes and update their software accordingly, as well as closely follow the Riecoin Core development.
Here is a list of notable changes from 0.16.3.1.
The next step will be the hard fork, in order to improve Riecoin in multiple ways. Here is the list of planned changes.
Once the development is advanced enough, a date will be chosen for the hard fork. Testnet will be hardforked first to ensure the well functioning of the implementation. Stay tuned!
submitted by PttnMe to RieCoin [link] [comments]

It's Good Friday, and a millionaire is about to rise from the ashes (figuratively)! Comment to enter! [Drawing Thread #41]

Praise thy!

TL;DR of the TL;DR:
In Case You Missed It:
  • So I'm going to be unavailable for the next few hours. Quick notes, this thread will close at 0:00 UTC (8 PM ET) due to me being late by thirteen minutes. As a side effect, comment retrieval will occur, centered at 3:00 UTC (11 PM ET). Not good enough, I was not able to get online before that. 4:00 UTC (12 AM ET) it is! 5:00 UTC (1 AM). Apparently, Pydroid need a repository plug-in, whatever that means. Hope I stay up for that long.
  • The /millionairemakersmeta discussion thread is up, and be welcome to donate to the past winner.
  • UNDER CONSTRUCTION, though can't guarantee it'll get repaired.
TL;DR:
Leave a comment on this thread, replies won't count. A random user will be chosen, and everyone donates a dollar to make a millionaire. You are welcome to spread this thread via upvoting, telling friends and family, and sharing on social media!
  • [If you'd like to be reminded to donate to the winner through PM via the RemindMeBot, click here!](UNAVAILABLE)
What is this, anyway?
Three years ago, a Redditor posted an idea in /Showerthoughts that speculated the fact, if a million people picked a certain Redditor and all donated just $1, they would have the power to make someone a millionaire.
This subreddit is an embodiment of that showerthought, and the monthly drawings are the attempts to make it happen.
We need your help to keep this running, which amounts to only $1 a month to make someone's day. In the long term, that’s $120 every decade, which is much more affordable than other expenses. How does it work? Below, you will find an explanation on entering, rules to keep in mind, the selection, and other important things to note.
How to enter:
  • REQUIRED: Leave only one (1) top level comment in reply to this thread! Replying to other comments will not count. It is highly recommended to comment "RemindMe! 3 days Donation for /millionairemakers", which will remind you via PM to donate. That's it!
Important Rules:
  • Only ONE top level comment per person (replies and subsequent-level comments aren't included), but feel free to reply to other comments. Making duplicate top level comments may result in exclusion from entering. Go to me to ensure you don't accidentally double comment.
  • If, by any chance, you do double comment, delete any extra duplicates ASAP, ideally before the thread is locked, as any chosen draws found to violate this will not be eligible to win, and will be banned from the subreddit.
  • Your account must be older than 30 days with some amount of activity. Throwaway accounts with very minimal activity will also not be eligible. This is to prevent multiple entries from the same person.
How will the winner be picked and how can you donate?
  • After 24 hours, this thread will close, and the method of selection will begin.
  • While attempts to make the selection method similar to 2017’s have been performed, it still varies from the original. For an example from a prior drawing, see [Draw #36]. For archival purposes, please click here for the original selection method.
  • Method's TL;DR: Your number is assigned by sorting the comments by old, resulting in the first commenter being 1. The list of comments will be publicly released for the community to verify per their own accord. The subreddit then waits for a randomly generated block (a string of numbers) from Bitcoin's blockchain, after a preselected date and time, and calculates the winner using a formula described in the posts mentioned above.
  • Comment IDs are downloaded at 2:00 UTC, three hours following the thread being locked. There will be an official run at the time listed. If it is shown that there are any technical difficulties, the retrieval of the comments will be delayed by an hour, following the same procedures.
  • While not necessary, to determine if you are on the list, please go to your comment and save it. The comment ID is what gets recorded and selected, which looks like this: e3yxpj4.
  • The Draw is held at 16:00 UTC the Sunday after comments have been downloaded, unless stated otherwise. Using the Bitcoin blockchain, the third block yet to be mined will be used to select a winner.
  • The user who created the winning comment will be informed of their luck and will provide any information necessary for their chosen payment methods (mods will help set this up if needed).
  • The generous Reddit community donates to this lucky person, hopefully making some worthy soul a millionaire! A donation table will be stickied to the winner’s post, giving users the freedom in how they donate.
  • The lucky Redditor follows up with a thank you within the next days, revealing to the community exactly how much was raised and thanking their generosity.
Reminders
  • Take the time you have available now to setup your PayPal, Square Cash, and Google Wallet account, and/or cryptocurrency wallets. (Note: Some services may not be available depending on where you reside.)
  • To buy any cryptocurrencies, you may use Coinbase for purchases using your bank account.
  • To store cryptocurrencies, there are many accessible wallets, and if you win, you will be guided on which ones to download. For Bitcoin and Bitcoin Cash, it’s recommended to use the Electrum and Electron Cash wallet for Mac, Linux, and PC.
  • Please try your best to donate a $1, no matter who wins. Every single dollar, cent, anything really counts, so please take the effort to remember and go through with it.
  • If you want to be reminded to donate, please comment "RemindMe! 3 days Donation for /millionairemakers".
  • Spread the word! The more people who participate, the better this gets for everyone! There has been a correlation between this subreddit making it in /all and an increase in donations.
  • Try to cross-post to relevant subs, and upvote. There is a correlation between reaching /all and the amount of donations for the winner. (Please don't spam other subs though. We're not trying to make any enemies here.)
  • If you are under 18, please talk to your parents to get their consent to participate and use their help to setup a PayPal account.
MOST IMPORTANTLY
Remember, this is about generosity, making history, and coming together to make someone's life better. It takes three minutes to donate a bit to the winner, whether you're well off and want to donate a couple bucks, or going through tough times and can only donate a few pennies. Every cent counts.
Note about legality: This is NOT a lottery. You don't have to pay to enter. No prizes are given away directly by the moderators of this subreddit (the moderators will never even touch your donations; this is done voluntarily). As for gift taxes, according to the IRS, they're paid by the donor, and any donations under $15,000 is not taxable.
If a lone $1 can get you stuff, imagine the possibilities with $1,000,000. You can get stuff, stuff, and stuff!
One million dollars can help do things. Spread the word: have your friends and family comment, post the link to your friendly-neighborhood social media network, and share it to anyone interested.
Let's make an egg-cellent millionaire!
haiku
(This is an altered generic template thread.)
submitted by lilfruini to millionairemakers [link] [comments]

The Blackmail Email Scam (part 4)

THIS THREAD IS NOW ARCHIVED, THE LATEST THREAD CAN BE FOUND HERE: https://old.reddit.com/Scams/comments/g8jqnthe_blackmail_email_scam_part_5/

TEXT, PHONE CALL, AND PHYSICAL MAIL VARIANTS ARE COVERED IN THE LATEST THREAD.

IF YOU RECEIVE A BLACKMAIL EMAIL, PLEASE REDACT THE PERSONAL INFORMATION AND POST IT AS A COMMENT ON THIS THREAD SO THAT OTHERS WHO RECEIVE THE SAME EMAIL CAN FIND IT THROUGH GOOGLE.

FIRST THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/8gsjba/the_blackmail_email_scam/

SECOND THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/9srjen/the_blackmail_email_scam_part_2/###

THIRD THREAD: https://old.reddit.com/Scams/comments/biv65o/the_blackmail_email_scam_part_3/

There have been many recent posts about the blackmail email scam, so I have written this post and will keep it stickied until the posts about the scam die down. If you are reading this because you have received one of these emails and you are worried, you can stop worrying. The blackmail email scam is a spam campaign that is sent out to thousands of addresses at a time. In al cases, the threats are lies and you do not have anything to worry about. In many cases, the emails will contain information about you such as your name, part or all of your phone number, and your password. The emails may also look like they were sent from your own email address. The data is gathered from data breaches, and if the email looks like it came from your account that is due to email spoofing. You can use the service Have I Been Pwned? to see if you are in any publicly known data breaches. If you receive an email that contains a password that you currently use, you should immediately change that. Current recommended password guidelines say that you should use a different, complex password for every account. You can generate and save passwords using a password manager for convenience. You should also be using two factor authentication using an app like Google Authenticator instead of receiving codes through SMS.
Here are some news articles about this scam. Here is a story from Brian Krebs, and here is a story from the New York Times.
Below are a few examples, but if you receive an email that is similar but not the same as the examples you see, that does not matter and does not mean that the email is real. The spammers constantly switch up their templates in order to bypass spam filters, so it's normal to receive an email that hasn't yet been posted online.
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
Your computer device was attacked by the malicious app . Whats the trouble? I placed my malicious agent on a erotica portal, you clicked on this data and promptly adjusted the malware to your computer . The hostile program made your selfie-camera shooting and I enjoy the videotape with you dash your doodle. In next 5 hours this hostile program copied all your contacts. Right now, I receive your all your contact information and video with you masturbating, and now if you wish me to destroy all the data affect payment 350 $USD in BTC digital currency. Other way I want forward that this record to all your contacts . I forward you my Bitcoin wallet - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You possess 27 hours after reading. In a case if I possess transaction I am going to undo that this record once for all. I beg pardon for my mistakes- I live in China . P.S. this postal address, I have thieved it
Good day,
If you had been more careful while caressing yourself, I wouldn't worry you. I don't think that playing with yourself is very bad, but when all your colleagues, relatives and friends get a video recording of it - it is definitely bad for you.
I placed malicious software on a website for adults (with porn) which was visited by you. When the target taps on a play button, your device starts recording the screen and all cameras on your device begin to work.
Moreover, my program allows a remote desktop connection with keylogger function from the device, so I could collect all contacts from your e-mail, messengers and other social networks. I'm writing on this e-mail cuz it's your working address, so you must check it.
I suppose that three hundred twenty usd is good enough for this little misstep. I made a split screen video (recorded from your screen (u have interesting tastes ) and camera ooooooh... its awful AF)
So it's your choice. If you want me to erase this compromising evidence, use my Bitcoin wallet address: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You have one day after opening my message; I put a special tracking pixel in it, so when you will open it I will see. If you want me to show you the proofs, reply to this message and I will send my creation to five contacts that I got from your contacts.
P.S. You can try to complain to the police, but I don't think that they can help, the investigation will last for 5 month- I'm from Ukraine - so I dgf lmao
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
I Have YOUR code. I rule phone xxxx
I SENT this newsletter from YOUR ACCOUNT.
I look your device.
I am in daze of your sex act fantasies!
I made backup your contacts and files. I made screenshots from your digital camera of yours device.
I want 888 $ to my (Bitcoin
My )Bitcoin currency
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If YOU don't transaction )Bitcoin. I share my quake of your golden age of porn fantasies with your contacts!
If you do not know how to do this - enter into Google/
=how to transfer money to a Bitcoin& wallet-
Time 30 hours.
This excellent post as Subway & Dairy Queen.
Hello!
I'm a programmer who cracked your email account and device about half year ago. You entered a password on one of the insecure site you visited, and I catched it.
Of course you can will change your password, or already made it. But it doesn't matter, my rat software update it every time.
Please don't try to contact me or find me, it is impossible, since I sent you an email from your email account.
Through your e-mail, I uploaded malicious code to your Operation System. I saved all of your contacts with friends, colleagues, relatives and a complete history of visits to the Internet resources. Also I installed a rat software on your device and long tome spying for you.
You are not my only victim, I usually lock devices and ask for a ransom. But I was struck by the sites of intimate content that you very often visit.
I am in shock of your reach fantasies! Wow! I've never seen anything like this! I did not even know that SUCH content could be so exciting!
So, when you had fun on intime sites (you know what I mean!) I made screenshot with using my program from your camera of yours device. After that, I jointed them to the content of the currently viewed site.
Will be funny when I send these photos to your contacts! And if your relatives see it? BUT I'm sure you don't want it. I definitely would not want to ...
I will not do this if you pay me a little amount. I think $877 is a nice price for it!
I accept only Bitcoins. My BTC wallet: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you have difficulty with this - Ask Google "how to make a payment on a bitcoin wallet". It's easy. After receiving the above amount, all your data will be immediately removed automatically. My virus will also will be destroy itself from your operating system.
My Trojan have auto alert, after this email is looked, I will be know it!
You have 2 days (48 hours) for make a payment. If this does not happen - all your contacts will get crazy shots with your dirty life! And so that you do not obstruct me, your device will be locked (also after 48 hours)
Do not take this frivolously! This is the last warning! Various security services or antiviruses won't help you for sure (I have already collected all your data).
Here are the recommendations of a professional: Antiviruses do not help against modern malicious code. Just do not enter your passwords on unsafe sites!
I hope you will be prudent. Bye.
Same as before but they increased the amount
I got an order from someone to kill you and your family
but I am far from your house
if you still love your family, I ask you to transfer 0.1 BTC to me.
If you report this email, I will immediately kill your family.
FORWARD THIS MAIL TO WHOEVER IS IMPORTANT IN YOUR COMPANY AND CAN MAKE DECISION!
We Hacked network. We Caught Communications. We Backuped DATA And DOCUMENTS. We send this mail to you in YOUR account.
After analyzing documents. We found Illegal activity - HIDING TAXES.
That we want?
I want two (2) Bitcoin To wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
That we do if you don't pay bitcoin?
We send these Documents and Proofs to your Tax Department.
And in this time Your network will be DDoS. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service\_attack
We are locking your operation system. Our friends, WannaCry, ready start and waiting command. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WannaCry\_ransomware\_attack
This is our guarantee, that you don't clean evidence and building a protection policy.
If you don't pay by in 7 days, attack will start.
Attack including.
1.DDOS 2.Locking operation system 3.Sending all documents in Tax Departament
Yours service going down permanently and price to stop will increase to Four (4) BTC, Price will go up one (1) BTC for every day of the attack.
This is not a joke.
Our attacks are extremely powerful - sometimes over 1 Tbps per second. And we pass CloudFlare and others remote protections! So, no cheap protection will help.
Prevent this problem all with just Two (2) BTC Pay to our wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
AND YOU WILL NEVER AGAIN HEAR FROM US!
If you read, hear fake-experts and assure yourself that this is not true. Remember that they are not responsible and your life don't important him. Their business is to speak and make money. Your business to do and make money and stay freedom.
All mistakes in text we do specily.
Bitcoin is anonymous, nobody will ever know you cooperated.
Time started after open this mail. To track the reading of a message and the actions in it, I use the facebook pixel. Read that in this link
Hello!
I am a hacker who has access to your operating system.
I also have full access to your account.
I've been watching you for a few months now.
The fact is that you were infected with malware through an adult site that you visited.
If you are not familiar with this, I will explain.
Trojan Virus gives me full access and control over a computer or other device.
This means that I can see everything on your screen, turn on the camera and microphone, but you do not know about it.
I also have access to all your contacts and all your correspondence.
Why your antivirus did not detect malware?
Answer: My malware uses the driver, I update its signatures every 4 hours so that your antivirus is silent.
I made a video showing how you satisfy yourself in the left half of the screen, and in the right half you see the video that you watched.
With one click of the mouse, I can send this video to all your emails and contacts on social networks.
I can also post access to all your e-mail correspondence and messengers that you use.
If you want to prevent this,
transfer the amount of $500 to my bitcoin address (if you do not know how to do this, write to Google: "Buy Bitcoin").
My bitcoin address (BTC Wallet) is: x
After receiving the payment, I will delete the video and you will never hear me again.
I give you 50 hours (more than 2 days) to pay.
I have a notice reading this letter, and the timer will work when you see this letter.
Filing a complaint somewhere does not make sense because this email cannot be tracked like my bitcoin address.
I do not make any mistakes.
If I find that you have shared this message with someone else, the video will be immediately distributed.
Best regards.
Hey, I know your password is:
Your computer was infected with my malware, RAT (Remote Administration Tool), your browser wasn't updated / patched, in such case it's enough to just visit some website where my iframe is placed to get automatically infected, if you want to find out more - Google: "Drive-by exploit".
My malware gave me full access and control over your computer, meaning, I got access to all your accounts (see password above) and I can see everything on your screen, turn on your camera or microphone and you won't even notice about it.
I collected all your private data and I was spying on you, I RECORDED (through your webcam) embarrassing moments of you, you know what I mean!
After that I removed my malware to not leave any traces.
I can publish all your private data everywhere and I can send the videos to all your contacts, post it on social network, publish it on the whole web, including the darknet, where the sick people are!
Only you can prevent me from doing this and only I can help you out in this situation.
Transfer exactly 1200$ with the current bitcoin (BTC) price to my bitcoin address.
It's a very good offer, compared to all that horrible shit that will happen if I publish everything!
You can easily buy bitcoin here: www.paxful.com , www.coingate.com , www.coinbase.com , or check for bitcoin ATM near you, or Google for other exchanger. You can send the bitcoin directly to my address, or create your own wallet first here: www.login.blockchain.com/en/#/signup/ , then receive and send to mine.
My bitcoin address is:
Copy and paste my address, it's (cAsE-sEnSEtiVE)
I give you 3 days time to transfer the bitcoin!
As I got access to this email account, I will know if this email has already been read. If you get this email multiple times, it's to make sure you read it and after payment you can ignore it. After receiving the payment, I will remove everything and you can life your live in peace like before.
Next time update your browser before browsing the web!
НЕLLО!
I’m going to cut to thе chӓsе.I know ӓbout thе sеcrеt you ӓrе kееping from your wifе.Morе importӓntly,I hӓvе еvidеncе of whӓt you hӓvе bееn hiding.I won’t go into thе spеcifics hеrе in cӓsе your wifе intеrcеpts this,but you know whӓt I ӓm tӓlking ӓbout.
You don’t know mе pеrsonӓlly ӓnd nobody hirеd mе to look into you.Nor did I go out looking to burn you.It’s just your bӓd luck thӓt I stumblеd ӓcross your misӓdvеnturеs whilе.I thеn put in morе timе thӓn I probӓbly should hӓvе looking into your lifе.Frӓnkly,I ӓm rеӓdy to forgеt ӓll ӓbout you ӓnd lеt you gеt on with your lifе.And I ӓm going to givе you two options thӓt will ӓccomplish thӓt vеry thing.Thosе two options ӓrе to еithеr ignorе this lеttеr,or simply pӓy mе $822.Lеt’s еxӓminе thosе two options in morе dеtӓil.
Option 1 is to ignorе this lеttеr.Lеt mе tеll you whӓt will hӓppеn if you chosе this pӓth.I will tӓkе this еvidеncе ӓnd sеnd it to your wifе. And ӓs insurӓncе ӓgӓinst you intеrcеpting it bеforе your wifе gеts it,I will ӓlso sеnd copiеs to hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily.So,Evеn if you dеcidе to comе clеӓn with your wifе,it won’t protеct hеr from thе humiliӓtion shе will fееl whеn hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily find out your sordid dеtӓils from mе.
Option 2 is to pӓy mе $822.Wе’ll cӓll this my ‘confidеntiӓlity fее.’Now lеt mе tеll you whӓt hӓppеns if you choosе this pӓth.Your sеcrеt rеmӓins your sеcrеt.You go on with your lifе ӓs though nonе of this еvеr hӓppеnеd.Though you mӓy wӓnt to do ӓ bеttеr job ӓt kееping your misdееds sеcrеt in thе futurе.
At this point you mӓy bе thinking,‘I’ll just go to thе cops.’Which is why I hӓvе tӓkеn stеps to еnsurе this lеttеr cӓnnot bе trӓcеd bӓck to mе.So thӓt won’t hеlp,ӓnd it won’t stop thе еvidеncе from dеstroying your lifе.I’m not looking to brеӓk your bӓnk.I just wӓnt to bе compеnsӓtеd for thе timе I put into invеstigӓting you. $822 will closе thе books on thӓt.
Lеt’s ӓssumе you hӓvе dеcidеd to mӓkе ӓll this go ӓwӓy ӓnd pӓy mе thе confidеntiӓlity fее.In kееping with my strӓtеgy to not go to jӓil,wе will not mееt in pеrson ӓnd thеrе will bе no physicӓl еxchӓngе of cӓsh.You will pӓy mе ӓnonymously using bitcoin.If you wӓnt to kееp your sеcrеt thеn sеnd $822 in bitcoin to thе Rеcеiving Bitcoin Addrеss listеd bеlow.Pӓymеnt must bе rеcеivеd within 1 dӓys of thе post.
You should mӓkе ӓ trӓnsӓction of using bitcoins (cryptocurrеnsy): x
[Bitcoin dеtӓils]
Tеll no onе whӓt you will bе using thе bitcoin for or thеy mӓy not givе it to you.Thе procеdurе to obtӓin bitcoin cӓn tӓkе ӓ dӓy or two so do not put it off.Agӓin pӓymеnt must bе rеcеivеd within 1 dӓys of this lеttеr’s post mӓrkеd dӓtе.If I don’t rеcеivе thе bitcoin by thе dеӓdlinе,I will go ӓhеӓd ӓnd rеlеӓsе thе еvidеncе to еvеryonе.If you go thӓt routе,thеn thе lеӓst you could do is tеll your wifе so shе cӓn comе up with ӓn еxcusе to prеpӓrе hеr friеnds ӓnd fӓmily bеforе thеy find out.Thе clock is ticking.
And here are some common keywords used in the email so that this thread can be found by people Googling the email:
"Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, .br, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material""Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material"
submitted by EugeneBYMCMB to Scams [link] [comments]

Trench Block a Blockfolio Clone App for Android and a cryptocurrency app template @99steem

TrenchBlock is am an amazing tool, which allows you to keep track of all of your crypto assets in one place. With the ability to get live rates and updates from Crypto Exchanges TrenchBlock provides you all the benefits in a single place. TrenchBlocks provide FREE Bitcoin & other cryptocurrency market updates from exchanges in real-time. Moving wallets to a new app can be highly insecure and you may want to avoid it at every possible level, with Trenchtimes you can keep your wallets in any place you like and still have the ability to see what's going on in the wallets. Like incoming and outgoing transactions, your current crypto value and rates in multiple fiat currencies also get detailed crypto price and market information and receive Signal updates directly from crypto team leaders. Bitcoin price tracking made easy with this crypto tracking app.
Note: This content is copied from 99steem.com for marketing purposes.

#blockchain #blockchainapp #cryptocurrency #cryptoapp #androidapp
submitted by 99steem to u/99steem [link] [comments]

What the upcoming years might hold in store for bitcoin (a technical outlook by John Newbery)

John Newbery is a developer contributing to Bitcoin Core and to various educational resources like Bitcoin Optech.
Original source is here: https://twitter.com/jfnewbery/status/1208559196465184768. Keep in mind that the text below is copied from Twitter, so the formatting/phrasing might seem a little strange.
--------------------------------------------------------

The end of the decade is a good time to look back and marvel at the giant strides that Bitcoin has made since Satoshi gave us the whitepaper in 2008. It's also a natural point to look forward to what the upcoming years might hold in store.
This is where I think Bitcoin is headed over the next few years. Tell me why I'm wrong and what I've missed!
The lightning protocol teams working on c-lightning (@Blockstream), eclair (@acinq_co), LND (@lightning) and rust lightning will continue to iterate rapidly on the lightning protocol.
All implementations now support basic multi-path payments (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/multipath-payments/). We'll get better support of that as well as dual-funding, splice-in and splice-out (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/splicing/).
Taken together, those technologies will make channel and liquidity management much easier. They'll be automated, fade into the background and user experience will improve drastically.
Lightning infrastructure will improve. @bitfinex recently added lightning deposits and withdrawals. All other exchanges, merchant service providers, custodians and wallets will follow suit or become obsolete.
We'll see more lightning wallets: a mix of non-custodial; self-custodied with outsourced routing; and fully-self-managed wallets. This is a brand new space and there'll be lots of experimentation. Different teams will find different niches to fill.
Already, wallets like @MuunWallet, @Breez_Tech, @PhoenixWallet, @ln_zapand @bluewalletio are experimenting with different models.
Tooling for lightning developers will improve. When we ran the lightning apps residency just over a year ago, the attendees spent a lot of time setting up their lightning dev environments.
Now, with Polar (https://github.com/jamaljspolar) by @jamaljsr, lightning app developers can set up a test environment with a few clicks. More and better tools will continue to appear.
With better tooling, we'll see faster innovation on the application layer. Teams at @zebedeeio, @SatoshisGames, and others we haven't heard of yet will delight us with new and unexpected lightning experiences.
The schnortaproot softfork (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/taproot/) will be activated in 2020 or 2021. That'll provide a huge improvement in fungibility, privacy, scalability and functionality. For an overview of the benefits, watch the Optech exec briefing here: https://bitcoinops.org/en/2019-exec-briefing/#the-next-softfork
That'll allow lightning to upgrade from HTLCs to Payment Points. That's a big improvement for privacy and payment decorrelation, and allows 'Stuckless payments' with proofs-of-payment -- another huge boost in LN usablity.
See the @suredbits series of blog posts here https://suredbits.com/payment-points-part-1/ for more details on Payment Points.
Even better, lightning channel opens and closes will look identical to payments to single pubkeys. The same is true for payments to k-of-n pubkey thresholds. That's good for fungibility, privacy and scalability.
In fact, with schnortaproot, there's almost no downside to encumbering UTXOs with advanced scripts instead of single pubkey outputs.
Cold storage UTXOs will be k-of-n multisig keytrees, and all hot wallet UTXOs will be stored in channels (with splicing-out used to make on-chain payments). When transactions hit the chain, they'll look like any other single pubkey/signature payment.
Payments into wallets will pay directly into channel open outputs (thanks to @esneider for pointing this out to me). There'll be no concept of an on-chain balance and an in-channel balance. Just a single, unified balance that can be used for lightning or on-chain payments.
Wallet teams will collaborate on a PayJoin payment protocol (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/payjoin/). A large number of on-chain transactions will be 2-input-2-ouput transactions, vastly improving fungibility and privacy, and foiling chain analysis.
The inputs to those PayJoin transactions may be channel splice-outs, and the outputs may be channel opens, but there'll be no way to tell from observing the chain.
Eventually we'll have cross-input signature aggregation (https://bitcoincore.org/en/2017/03/23/schnorr-signature-aggregation/#signature-aggregation), which means those PayJoin transactions will only have a single signature, and will be *cheaper* than regular change-producing transactions.
Larger coinjoins will be cheaper still. An advanced PayJoin payment protocol could even batch multiple payments to the same merchant/exchange and use only a single signature.
We'll get SIGHASH_NOINPUT or SIGHASH_ANYPREVOUT (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/sighash_noinput/), making eltoo (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/eltoo/) possible, and blurring the lines between layer 1 and layer 2 (https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/lightning-dev/2019-Septembe002136.html).
That'll make lightning even more usable and allow more advanced layer 2 contracts like channel factories (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/channel-factories/).
All these advanced features will require greater wallet interoperability. That's where miniscript (https://bitcoinops.org/en/topics/miniscript/) comes in.
With miniscript, wallets will eventually be able to enter contracts with each other that don't require pre-templated scripts (as lightning currently does). This wallet interoperability will allow faster innovation in layer 2 contracts.
OP_CTV (https://bitcoinops.org/en/newsletters/2019/12/04/#op-checktemplateverify-ctv) or some other covenant-enabling opcode will be activated, allowing richer layer 2 constructions like joinpools (https://freenode.irclog.whitequark.org/bitcoin-wizards/2019-05-21#1558427254-1558427441).
Taken together with taproot and SIGHASH_NOINPUT, we'll get extremely rich and private off-chain contracts will be made possible.
Some of these things will happen in 2020, and some will take a bit longer, but they're all heading in the same direction: using the chain for what the chain's good for (h/t Andrew Poelstra).
That's to say: the block chain allows nodes to arrive at an agreed ledger state, while contracting and functionality move up onto layer two. Doing so is cheaper, more secure, more private and allows for more rapid innovation.
None of this is inevitable, and none can happen without the industry of many hands and the creativity of many minds. There are years of work ahead for developers, researchers, businesses and users.
If you run a Bitcoin business, you can help by supporting, sponsoring or hiring open source developers.
If you're a Bitcoin user, you can help by *demanding* that any service you use supports the open source ecosystem.
If you're a developer, you can help by reviewing and testing PRs and releases. https://bitcoincore.reviews/ is a great place to start.
2020 is going to be a great year for Bitcoin and Lightning protocol development!
/fin
submitted by TheGreatMuffin to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

ARK. Here's what's it's all about, what's been going on, and what's coming. [Explain Like I'm Busy]

Dude, it said explain like I'm busy I'm not going to read all this

No problem. Check out these hand-picked relevant ARK Crypto Podcast episodes. Learn while you listen, drive to work or home, cook a steak, give your dog a bath, etc.
If you have decided to read all this, thanks, keep reading for a concise breakdown!

So what's the current big thing going on with ARK right NOW?

ARK.io has recently announced on both its blog and its Twitter that ARK Core v2.6 is coming to Mainnet February 11th. The iteration of 2.6 may sound anticlimactic, but it's far from that. Core v2.6 is the biggest upgrade to date- even bigger than the total Core overhaul performed for v2.0, deployed late 2018.
The new version brings new transaction types to the ARK Public Network, including types that will play a role in creating an ecosystem of linked chains. This ecosystem of linked chains will have the ARK Public Network in the center of the action, storing chain details and allowing for chain discovery.
These new transaction types include:
Multipayments — sending to multiple ARK addresses, while just initiating one transaction, saves time and cost
Multisignatures — you can now get all of the benefits of multisignatures where more than one user can propose or spend funds depending on the predefined terms (eg. 2 out of 3 users needed to successfully send tokens, vote, …)
IPFS — register IPFS compliant hashes on the ARK blockchain within Desktop Wallet.
Business & Bridgechain registrations — you can now register your business and bridgechain on the blockchain and soon, you will be able to get verified via our Marketplace to get access to some exciting new features.
Delegate resignation — delegates who don’t want to be voted for anymore can now opt-out of this by simply initiating delegate resignation.
Additionally, the Core v2.6 improves security against double-spend attacks by implementing nonces. Also, massive enhancements were made to the GTI or Generic Transaction Interface, a critical tool for developers who wish to develop decentralized applications.

What is ARK's unique approach to current issues plaguing the blockchain industry?

ARK empowers everyone, regardless of their aim or technical background, to quickly and easily leverage blockchain technology. In the current hype-driven blockchain landscape, ARK acts as a beacon for individuals, groups, and enterprises seeking to apply blockchain technology to both reach their individual goals and affect change in their local community. ARK’s uniquely simple technology stack allows almost anyone to create and deploy standalone blockchains for any use case with an intuitive graphical user interface and experience. These newly created blockchains also known as bridgechains will have the ability to interoperate through ARK SmartBridge Technology. ARK is also reinventing smart contracts with ARK Logic, a collection of tools including custom transaction types, templates, and plugins. ARK Logic brings security, adaptability, and scalability to decentralized computing workflows. Most importantly, the ARK Ecosystem fosters a growing international community of developers, node operators, blockchains, businesses, and enthusiasts who collectively breathe life into this disruptive technology. Get into the interactive whitepaper here.

Tell me about the ARK Public Network

Ok, no problem. Since coming online on March 21, 2017, the APN has operated as a P2P cryptocurrency with fast block times of 8 seconds and low dynamic fees (near a penny and somewhat novel for a DPoS blockchain). However, the end goal of the APN far exceeds that of just a cryptocurrency that is faster and cheaper to use than Bitcoin. I'll explain further in a minute.
The network, as mentioned, is set up as Delegated Proof-of-Stake. This means forging delegates are deemed worthy to secure the chain and add blocks to it by the holders of the ARK token, which vote for delegates using their ARK as vote weight. ARK remains in users' control at all times, and the top 51 delegates in vote weight enter forging status. The network awards each delegate 2 ARK per block (~12,705 ARK/mo) for services rendered. This continues ad infinitum resulting in a declining inflation rate each year (relative to total supply). When users add or remove ARK from a voting wallet address, vote weight adjusts automatically and they don't need to vote again. Voting continues even if user's wallet is offline.
The main uses of ARK as the cryptoasset of the ARK Public Network besides being a P2P cryptocurrency include:
If you're interested in more details about APN uses, check this direct link to that section of whitepaper.

Is team good?

Yes, team good. Team very good. General sentiment among ARK team members is that ARK is a dream project to work on, and this motivates them to do great work on a consistent basis as the ARK technology stack progresses. Very recently, ARK hired an additional half dozen people in various departments, including marketing department. This brings ARK team total to over three dozen experts. The ARK business entity is also well funded with around 10 years of budget. The ARK business entity spends funds in a very sensible manner compared to some other projects who spend with insufficient foresight or discretion.
Members of the board are thoughtful and deliberate, and the CEO FX Thoorens has been hard at work putting a spotlight on ARK, showing an 'intermeshing' of ARK with the global regulatory landscape in regards to crypto. Recently, ARK became a founding member of ADAN, a professional association based in France created to help structure and develop the digital assets industry. Other members include Consensys France and Ledger. ADAN will consult with public authorities, industry leaders and private bodies to promote the use of digital assets and all activities in this sector. This includes exchange platforms, brokers, hardware, protocols, decentralized applications and blockchain technology platforms. Hear FX Thoorens talk more about this in this podcast episode.
The ARK business entity is located in France, but the ARK team is distributed across 10+ countries and multiple continents.

What's going to happen?

Cool stuff. Organizations and open source projects have been stumbling across ARK and really like what they see. Multiple projects are working with ARK technology and are at various stages of development, but since you're busy, I'll highlight the project nOS which recently launched their public testnet and uses ARK technology for their blockchain. nOS also has great things to say about ARK that you can hear in this podcast episode or watch in this video.
We believe that as more businesses, organizations, and open source projects start looking around for blockchain solutions, they will also enjoy ARK's simplicity, flexibility, and feature set. Our powerful technology stack is backed up by a recently upgraded documentation hub for developers.
The product we have that makes it very easy for projects to join the ARK Ecosystem is called the ARK Deployer, which you can learn about in this two minute video. It allows developers from all walks of life to create, customize and launch a standalone blockchain in three simple steps. In the near future, what's going to happen is a big improvement to the Deployer. The ARK Deployer will get an upgraded and more powerful user interface that also facilitates chain management post-launch, as well as interface directly with cloud providers like Digital Ocean to launch genesis node and peers in background. This would allow for a massive leap forward in our vision of 'Point. Click. Blockchain.'
ARK.io is also working on a Marketplace for developers, where custom plugins and tools developed by both ARK.io as well as third parties can be acquired for assembling blockchains much easier. Imagine a wordpress-type environment where you can create a super-powerful and customized blockchain by connecting Legos together. In the same way that early World Wide Web needed WordPress/Squarespace style tools to bring the technology to every business or organization, we believe that this need will be out there for blockchain technology as this new decade progresses.
There is more cool stuff that is going to happen, but I'll wrap it up there for now.

After reading all this stuff, what is it you want me to do?

Well, not make any financial decisions, because that is not the purpose of this information. However, as a developer, there's a lot of interesting things you should know and may want to consider doing. The ARK technology stack uses TypeScript and other JS-style frameworks, so if you know those, you should get excited.
Here's some additional less 'developery' stuff you can do:
Thanks for coming along for the ride of this post. ARK has been out here, it's out here, and it's going to continue to be out here, doing its part to make sure everybody knows that blockchains are, in fact, a thing.
submitted by doubled1c3 to ArkEcosystem [link] [comments]

#Reddcoin ($RDD) Core Wallet Release 3.0.1 - PosV v2 SuperMajority Consensus Upgrade at 45.6% - Required Upgrade

Reddcoin (RDD) Core Wallet v3.0.1 - January 09, 2020
Version 3.0.1 is the official release version of Reddcoin Core. It is available for download at Reddcoin Core's Github repository here: https://github.com/reddcoin-project/reddcoin/releases/tag/v3.0.1
This release features PoSV v2.supermajority activation and new staking ruleset (and minor misc fixes). v3.0.1 is still not yet MacOS Catalina compatible. We are still working and should have that fix issued very soon. Sincere apologies to our Mac-using ReddHeads.
It is particularly important that all users upgrade, as once PoSV v2 is enforced, version 4 blocks will be rejected from the network entirely.
Therefore v3.0.1 is a "strongly recommended" update for all users. Note: If you have already installed v3.0.0, this upgrade is not required. If you have not yet upgraded from v2.0.x or earlier, this is a REQUIRED upgrade. Please install the newest version v3.0.1 to avoid losing functionality during supermajority activation of PoSV v2.
Reddcoin Core version 3.0.1 is now available from: https://github.com/reddcoin-project/reddcoin/releases Release Notes are available here and replicated below in this announcement: https://github.com/reddcoin-project/reddcoin/blob/mastedoc/release-notes.md
This is a new major version release of Reddcoin.
Previously, the original and subsequent versions of Reddcoin were taken from a fork of the Litecoin code base.
With the release of Reddcoin V2.0.0, the code was based directly from a fork of Bitcoin. This allows for better source control and feature implementation from upstream changes into the future
With the release of Reddcoin V3.0.0, the PoSV stake reward has been improved to allow for a target 5% network growth, in process re-incentivizing individual network stakers and providing for integrated dev support.
Upgrading to this release is strongly recommended and required for continued operation. Once a supermajority of 90% is reached, old wallets will no longer accept the new v5 blocks.
Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github:
https://github.com/reddcoin-project/reddcoin/issues
How to Upgrade
If you are running an older version of Reddcoin, shut it down. Wait until it has completely shut down (which may take a few minutes for older versions). Run the installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Reddcoin-Qt (on Mac) or reddcoind/reddcoin-qt (on Linux).
Start wallet. All done!
Reddcoin v3.0.0 introduced an updated PoSV method to better distribute staking rewards and target a overall 5% network growth. Staking and relay policy enhancements 
To implement PoSV v2, Reddcoin Core's block templates are now for version 5 blocks only. When PoSV v2 consensus (Supermajority 9000/10000) is reached, only v5 blocks will be accepted by the network.This equates to approximately 90% of blocks being generated over 1 week period. Status at any time may be viewed in node debug.log
Blockchain Download:
Blockchain data for both testnet and mainnet along with instructions can be downloaded from github. https://github.com/reddcoin-project/bootstrap_files
3.0.1 changelog
*83e212838 - John Nash, 2020-01-09 : really delete these files *3a1458ecd - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-08 : Added missing dependency libminiupnpc-dev for Jessie *d21915431 - Tiago Peralta, 2019-06-21 : Add vout to listtransactions/gettransaction *8d58ea7cf - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-08 : Script for downloading pre compiled binaries for Raspbian Jessie, Stretch or Buster *d4eced1bc - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-08 : Delete reddcoin_core_download_raspbian_stretch.sh *c5e9f91cf - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-08 : Delete reddcoin_core_download_raspbian_jessie.sh *5d5771b00 - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-08 : Delete reddcoin_core_download_raspbian_buster.sh *75c6ae91b - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-05 : add reddcoin-qt and remove starting daemon process *54c501787 - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-05 : add reddcoin-qt and remove starting daemon process *acb30a2b6 - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-05 : script files for Raspbian Jessie (also Stakebox) *cfddbe594 - John Nash, 2020-01-05 : Update copyright year and version *e46e5e7de - John Nash, 2020-01-05 : download script for pre compiled wallet *37386790a - John Nash, 2020-01-05 : change libssl deb packages links to github *9dbc772e6 - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-03 : download script for pre compiled wallet *857d697fd - Oliver Webb, 2020-01-03 : change libssl deb packages links to github *2cb74b9a8 - John Nash, 2019-12-31 : update copyright year *c641a1ab3 - Oliver Webb, 2019-12-30 : Raspberry Pi build script files for v3 wallet *a3f21a4a4 - John Nash, 2019-12-30 : add install script for building db4 update instructions for unix, osx, arm building using the db4 install script *5f6299b2a - John Nash, 2019-12-28 : docs: Update build notes for arm processors *465716c01 - John Nash, 2019-12-28 : test for arm devices *3fec3a535 - John Nash, 2018-02-02 : build: update source paths *5f6031ab4 - John Nash, 2019-12-28 : Scrypt n=1024 Pow hash based upon Colin Percival's Tarnsnap (2009) Modified by Artforz, coblee, pooler, wtogami, Nikolay Belikov, reddink *2fd4d91a0 - John Nash, 2019-12-24 : update copyright year *326828b36 - John Nash, 2019-12-24 : set release state true *8ebede0a6 - John Nash, 2019-12-24 : release notes *36df6fdfb - John Nash, 2019-12-23 : add check explictly for v5 blocks or greater *874dc1f0c - John Nash, 2019-12-17 : remove hardcoded global variable rearrange debug log output *763b25db8 - John Nash, 2019-12-17 : move copyright to new line *536baf635 - John Nash, 2019-12-17 : update version and set release state to false *cde9009f3 - John Nash, 2019-12-17 : update copyright year *ae41b7ed3 - John Nash, 2019-12-17 : set isSuperMajority to 90% for mainnet *e43e1c8ed - John Nash, 2019-12-10 : additional logging to verify isSuperMajority in the debug.log output *e31783cac - John Nash, 2019-12-05 : add/update public key for mainnet *405c6f002 - John Nash, 2019-12-05 : add log output for current inflation rate *9cc43c3f7 - John Nash, 2019-12-02 : determine calculated stake based on posv version *7baa3bf75 - John Nash, 2019-11-25 : check the posv transaction for correct pubkey *9ffa7ca38 - John Nash, 2019-11-21 : check for posv v1 or posv v2 blocks when calculating stake reward *39f7aad68 - John Nash, 2019-11-14 : add logging *0e283e6c3 - John Nash, 2019-11-13 : correct maths *74cbdeffd - John Nash, 2019-11-11 : use new posv v2 functions addidtional logging *35d7413b5 - John Nash, 2019-11-11 : add new proofofstakereward *3d917216c - John Nash, 2019-11-11 : get inflation adjustment *f63d17443 - John Nash, 2019-11-08 : add the developer output split fund output *ca263c9c9 - John Nash, 2019-11-05 : add dev key to chainparams *df6996ab0 - John Nash, 2019-11-05 : add block version checking *14b663479 - John Nash, 2019-11-05 : increase block version
Credits
Thanks to everyone who contributed to coding, testing and feedback for this release, notably:
@cryptognasher @techadept @chris @cryptobuze @harmonyq @mindredder @paxtech @Tiago Peralta 
Stake on!!
-Reddcoin (RDD) Core Development Team
submitted by TechAdept to reddCoin [link] [comments]

The Blackmail Email Scam (part 3)

THIS THREAD IS NOW ARCHIVED, THE LATEST THREAD CAN BE FOUND HERE: https://old.reddit.com/Scams/comments/g8jqnthe_blackmail_email_scam_part_5/

TEXT, PHONE CALL, AND PHYSICAL MAIL VARIANTS ARE COVERED IN THE LATEST THREAD.

IF YOU RECEIVE A BLACKMAIL EMAIL, PLEASE REDACT THE PERSONAL INFORMATION AND POST IT AS A COMMENT ON THIS THREAD SO THAT OTHERS WHO RECEIVE THE SAME EMAIL CAN FIND IT THROUGH GOOGLE

FIRST THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/8gsjba/the_blackmail_email_scam/

SECOND THREAD: https://www.reddit.com/Scams/comments/9srjen/the_blackmail_email_scam_part_2/

There have been many recent posts about the blackmail email scam, so I have written this post and will keep it stickied until the posts about the scam die down. If you are reading this because you have received one of these emails and you are worried, you can stop worrying. The blackmail email scam is a spam campaign that is sent out to thousands of addresses at a time. The threats are lies and you do not have anything to worry about. In many cases, the emails will contain information about you such as your name, part or all of your phone number, and your password. The emails may also look like they were sent from your own email address. The data is gathered from data breaches, and if the email looks like it came from your account that is due to email spoofing. You can use the service Have I Been Pwned? to see if you are in any publicly known data breaches. If you receive an email that contains a password that you currently use, you should immediately change that. Current recommended password guidelines say that you should use a different, complex password for every account. You can generate and save passwords using a password manager for convenience. You should also be using two factor authentication using an app like Google Authenticator instead of receiving codes through SMS.
Here are some news articles about this scam. Here is a story from Brian Krebs, and here is a story from the New York Times.
Below are a few examples, but if you receive an email that is similar but not the same as the examples you see, that does not matter and does not mean that the email is real. The spammers constantly switch up their templates in order to bypass spam filters, so it's normal to receive an email that hasn't yet been posted online.
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
Your computer device was attacked by the malicious app . Whats the trouble? I placed my malicious agent on a erotica portal, you clicked on this data and promptly adjusted the malware to your computer . The hostile program made your selfie-camera shooting and I enjoy the videotape with you dash your doodle. In next 5 hours this hostile program copied all your contacts. Right now, I receive your all your contact information and video with you masturbating, and now if you wish me to destroy all the data affect payment 350 $USD in BTC digital currency. Other way I want forward that this record to all your contacts . I forward you my Bitcoin wallet - XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You possess 27 hours after reading. In a case if I possess transaction I am going to undo that this record once for all. I beg pardon for my mistakes- I live in China . P.S. this postal address, I have thieved it
Good day,
If you had been more careful while caressing yourself, I wouldn't worry you. I don't think that playing with yourself is very bad, but when all your colleagues, relatives and friends get a video recording of it - it is definitely bad for you.
I placed malicious software on a website for adults (with porn) which was visited by you. When the target taps on a play button, your device starts recording the screen and all cameras on your device begin to work.
Moreover, my program allows a remote desktop connection with keylogger function from the device, so I could collect all contacts from your e-mail, messengers and other social networks. I'm writing on this e-mail cuz it's your working address, so you must check it.
I suppose that three hundred twenty usd is good enough for this little misstep. I made a split screen video (recorded from your screen (u have interesting tastes ) and camera ooooooh... its awful AF)
So it's your choice. If you want me to erase this compromising evidence, use my Bitcoin wallet address: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX You have one day after opening my message; I put a special tracking pixel in it, so when you will open it I will see. If you want me to show you the proofs, reply to this message and I will send my creation to five contacts that I got from your contacts.
P.S. You can try to complain to the police, but I don't think that they can help, the investigation will last for 5 month- I'm from Ukraine - so I dgf lmao
Hey there
So I am the hacker who cracked your email address and device a few weeks back.
You typed in your pwd on one of the sites you visited, and I intercepted that.
Here is your password from (redacted) upon time of compromise: (redacted)
Obviously you can can change it, or even already changed it.
However it won't really matter, my malware modified it every time.
Do not really try to contact me personally or find me.
Via your email, I uploaded harmful code to your Operation System.
I saved your entire contacts together with buddies, fellow workers, loved ones along with a entire history of visits to the World wide web resources.
Also I set up a Virus on your system.
You aren't my only target, I generally lock computers and ask for a ransom.
But I was hit by the web pages of romantic material that you normally stop by.
I am in shock of your own fantasies! I have never ever noticed anything at all like this!
Consequently, when you had enjoyment on piquant web-sites (you know what I am talking about!) I made screenshot with utilizing my program from your camera of yours device.
There after, I put together them to the content of the currently viewed site.
There will certainly be giggling when I send these pics to your connections!
Nevertheless I am certain you do not need this.
Therefore, I expect to have payment from you for my silence.
I feel $859 is an satisfactory price for this!
Pay with Bitcoin.
My Bitcoin wallet is xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you do not really understand how to do this - submit in to Google 'how to transfer money to the bitcoin wallet'. It is easy.
Immediately after getting the given amount, all your files will be right away destroyed automatically. My computer virus will also get rid of itself through your operating-system.
My Trojan viruses have auto alert, so I know when this specific e mail is read.
I give you 2 days (48 hours) to make a payment.
If this does not occur - just about all your associates will get outrageous pictures from your darkish secret life and your system will be blocked as well after two days.
Do not end up being foolish!
Police or buddies won't support you for sure ...
P.S I can provide you with recommendation for the future. Do not type in your security passwords on risky web pages.
I wish for your wisdom.
Bon voyage.
I Have YOUR code. I rule phone xxxx
I SENT this newsletter from YOUR ACCOUNT.
I look your device.
I am in daze of your sex act fantasies!
I made backup your contacts and files. I made screenshots from your digital camera of yours device.
I want 888 $ to my (Bitcoin
My )Bitcoin currency
xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If YOU don't transaction )Bitcoin. I share my quake of your golden age of porn fantasies with your contacts!
If you do not know how to do this - enter into Google/
=how to transfer money to a Bitcoin& wallet-
Time 30 hours.
This excellent post as Subway & Dairy Queen.
Hello!
I'm a programmer who cracked your email account and device about half year ago. You entered a password on one of the insecure site you visited, and I catched it.
Of course you can will change your password, or already made it. But it doesn't matter, my rat software update it every time.
Please don't try to contact me or find me, it is impossible, since I sent you an email from your email account.
Through your e-mail, I uploaded malicious code to your Operation System. I saved all of your contacts with friends, colleagues, relatives and a complete history of visits to the Internet resources. Also I installed a rat software on your device and long tome spying for you.
You are not my only victim, I usually lock devices and ask for a ransom. But I was struck by the sites of intimate content that you very often visit.
I am in shock of your reach fantasies! Wow! I've never seen anything like this! I did not even know that SUCH content could be so exciting!
So, when you had fun on intime sites (you know what I mean!) I made screenshot with using my program from your camera of yours device. After that, I jointed them to the content of the currently viewed site.
Will be funny when I send these photos to your contacts! And if your relatives see it? BUT I'm sure you don't want it. I definitely would not want to ...
I will not do this if you pay me a little amount. I think $877 is a nice price for it!
I accept only Bitcoins. My BTC wallet: xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
If you have difficulty with this - Ask Google "how to make a payment on a bitcoin wallet". It's easy. After receiving the above amount, all your data will be immediately removed automatically. My virus will also will be destroy itself from your operating system.
My Trojan have auto alert, after this email is looked, I will be know it!
You have 2 days (48 hours) for make a payment. If this does not happen - all your contacts will get crazy shots with your dirty life! And so that you do not obstruct me, your device will be locked (also after 48 hours)
Do not take this frivolously! This is the last warning! Various security services or antiviruses won't help you for sure (I have already collected all your data).
Here are the recommendations of a professional: Antiviruses do not help against modern malicious code. Just do not enter your passwords on unsafe sites!
I hope you will be prudent. Bye.
Same as before but they increased the amount
I got an order from someone to kill you and your family
but I am far from your house
if you still love your family, I ask you to transfer 0.1 BTC to me.
If you report this email, I will immediately kill your family.
FORWARD THIS MAIL TO WHOEVER IS IMPORTANT IN YOUR COMPANY AND CAN MAKE DECISION!
We Hacked network. We Caught Communications. We Backuped DATA And DOCUMENTS. We send this mail to you in YOUR account.
After analyzing documents. We found Illegal activity - HIDING TAXES.
That we want?
I want two (2) Bitcoin To wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
That we do if you don't pay bitcoin?
We send these Documents and Proofs to your Tax Department.
And in this time Your network will be DDoS. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Denial-of-service\_attack
We are locking your operation system. Our friends, WannaCry, ready start and waiting command. Read that in this link https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WannaCry\_ransomware\_attack
This is our guarantee, that you don't clean evidence and building a protection policy.
If you don't pay by in 7 days, attack will start.
Attack including.
1.DDOS 2.Locking operation system 3.Sending all documents in Tax Departament
Yours service going down permanently and price to stop will increase to Four (4) BTC, Price will go up one (1) BTC for every day of the attack.
This is not a joke.
Our attacks are extremely powerful - sometimes over 1 Tbps per second. And we pass CloudFlare and others remote protections! So, no cheap protection will help.
Prevent this problem all with just Two (2) BTC Pay to our wallet Bitcoin. 1Dz7DbQmE7SNm3C5mb9syPcctgZECcCEbL
AND YOU WILL NEVER AGAIN HEAR FROM US!
If you read, hear fake-experts and assure yourself that this is not true. Remember that they are not responsible and your life don't important him. Their business is to speak and make money. Your business to do and make money and stay freedom.
All mistakes in text we do specily.
Bitcoin is anonymous, nobody will ever know you cooperated.
Time started after open this mail. To track the reading of a message and the actions in it, I use the facebook pixel. Read that in this link
And here are some common keywords used in the email so that this thread can be found by people Googling the email:
"Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, .br, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material""Marlware, international hacker group, No‌ p‌erso‌n has co‌mp‌ensat‌ed, very o‌wn vid‌eo‌ cli‌p, software on the adult, porno sitio, one of your pass word, specific pixel, sexual content web portal, a malware on the adult, a malware on the, double-screen, is a reasonable price tag for our little secret, you have a good taste lmao, I placed a malware on the adult vids, your browser began operating as a RDP, had been abusing yourself in front of computer display, you are one of those people that downloaded the malicious, I made a split-screen video, While you were watching the video, your web browser acted as, malware on the porn website and guess what, an unique pixel, you jerked off while watching an online video, When you pressed the play button the virus begins saving all the things thru, ja.scr, My malicious soft started your front cam, and also send the video link to all of yourfriends, I infected your gadget with a malware and now, AnywaysI downloaded all contacts, my program quickly got into your system, To a time where you jerk off watching","For the present moment I have at my disposal all, When you arouse sexually watching porno, In such a way all needed compromising material and contact, All information to yours SNSs user accounts, You watched sexual content portal and toss","Hello! WannaCry is back! All your, in front of the screen browsing adult stuff, As you flog the dummy watching, U are going to be offered 5 days after checking this notice, RAT 68006, the damnific malware, pastime and entertainment there, not my single victim, beat the dummy, buff the muffin, choke a chicken, front camera capturing video, with you frigging, with you chaturbating, with you masturbating, web digicam, U are going to have 5 dayss, i utilize just hacked wi, pressured this trojan to, glue a pair of videos, glue two videos, the RAT, if you want me to destroy this whole video, downloaded all contacts from your computer, your list of contacts or relatives will, I made a video that shows how you masturbate, hacked you through a virus in an ad on a porn website, my illiteracy, nоt mind on my illiterаcy, I рilfered all рrivy bаckground, videоtaре with yоur masturbаtion, my delеtеrious soft, cаmеra shооt the videоtaрe, you sеlf-аbusing, Differently I will send the video to all your colleagues and friends, your front-camera made the videotape with you self-abusing, RAT 98390 malware, the minute you went to one adult page, information to contact info I discovered on your devices and remember there is a lot of these, not including Double VPN As a result, I forced my malware to hook up to a mic, web camera and catch the video from it, poisoned a number of adult sites, video clip to fit on a single tv screen, This letter has invisible monitoring program inside and i will be aware of when you are going to check, doing ur stuff and a clip u jerked to, the investigation will last, I uploaded our malicious program on your device, furthermore malware saved exactly the video you chose, its a record with your wanking, friends will see u taking proper care of yourself, Your system is controlled by the malicious program, If you were more careful while playing with yourself, that whacking off to adult web-sites is, adult website which was poisoned with my malware, nor i think that jerking off to porn sites is really a gross thing, so I dgf lmao, proof just reply to this email with, if you want me to destroy all this compromising evidence, will send your video to 5 contacts, amount in Usd that can cope with this scenario, You are welcome to contact your local authorities, If you want proof, reply with, i pride myself in being apart of an internet group, so i dgf, I take good care of my being anonymous, information related to the RAT virus, been able get in to all ur units, to all of your contacts including, search engines like goo, case sensitive, so copy,, and at this moment I, It is a non-nego, don't waste my perso, thi s mes, back while visiting, showe ring, what should you do ?, porno webpage, this embarrassing situation, navigated to the page, bare-assed, on well-known websites and publications, I got an order from someone to kill you and your family, immediately kill your family, is an explosive device, My mercenary is, explosive device detonates, triggered your webcam, piquant websites, my exploit downloaded, replenish btc wallet, i‌nstanta‌neo‌usly ‌erase, actua‌l r‌eco‌rded ma‌t‌eri‌al, n‌egl‌ect this ‌ema‌i‌l, my RAT trojan, video you jerked, I used keylogger, your disk dump, malware intercepts, installed a malware, remo‌v‌e yo‌ur vi‌deo‌ fo‌o‌ta‌ge, RAT onto your computer, greasy stimulating actions, excentric preferrables, porn web-page, to your Tax Department, network will be DDoS, friends, WannaCry, building a protection policy, in Tax Departament, Yours service going, we pass CloudFlare, hear fake-experts, backuped phone, -1663, of your joys, digits your phone, (porno), BIG pervert, both files and scale, naughty video clips, Soy un hacker, I installed spyware, n website with teen, malware on the porn website, very own recorded material"
submitted by EugeneBYMCMB to Scams [link] [comments]

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps
Introduction
ErgoScript is the smart contract language used by the Ergo blockchain. While it has concise syntax adopted from Scala/Kotlin, it still may seem confusing at first because conceptually ErgoScript is quite different compared to conventional languages which we all know and love. This is because Ergo is a UTXO based blockchain, whereas smart contracts are traditionally associated with account based systems like Ethereum. However, Ergo's transaction model has many advantages over the account based model and with the right approach it can even be significantly easier to develop Ergo contracts than to write and debug Solidity code.
Below we will cover the key aspects of the Ergo contract model which makes it different:
Paradigm
The account model of Ethereum is imperative. This means that the typical task of sending coins from Alice to Bob requires changing the balances in storage as a series of operations. Ergo's UTXO based programming model on the other hand is declarative. ErgoScript contracts specify conditions for a transaction to be accepted by the blockchain (not changes to be made in the storage state as result of the contract execution).
Scalability
In the account model of Ethereum both storage changes and validity checks are performed on-chain during code execution. In contrast, Ergo transactions are created off-chain and only validation checks are performed on-chain thus reducing the amount of operations performed by every node on the network. In addition, due to immutability of the transaction graph, various optimization strategies are possible to improve throughput of transactions per second in the network. Light verifying nodes are also possible thus further facilitating scalability and accessibility of the network.
Shared state
The account-based model is reliant on shared mutable state which is known to lead to complex semantics (and subtle million dollar bugs) in the context of concurrent/ distributed computation. Ergo's model is based on an immutable graph of transactions. This approach, inherited from Bitcoin, plays well with the concurrent and distributed nature of blockchains and facilitates light trustless clients.
Expressive Power
Ethereum advocated execution of a turing-complete language on the blockchain. It theoretically promised unlimited potential, however in practice severe limitations came to light from excessive blockchain bloat, subtle multi-million dollar bugs, gas costs which limit contract complexity, and other such problems. Ergo on the flip side extends UTXO to enable turing-completeness while limiting the complexity of the ErgoScript language itself. The same expressive power is achieved in a different and more semantically sound way.
With the all of the above points, it should be clear that there are a lot of benefits to the model Ergo is using. In the rest of this article I will introduce you to the concept of FlowCards - a dApp developer component which allows for designing complex Ergo contracts in a declarative and visual way.
From Imperative to Declarative
In the imperative programming model of Ethereum a transaction is a sequence of operations executed by the Ethereum VM. The following Solidity function implements a transfer of tokens from sender to receiver . The transaction starts when sender calls this function on an instance of a contract and ends when the function returns.
// Sends an amount of existing coins from any caller to an address function send(address receiver, uint amount) public { require(amount <= balances[msg.sender], "Insufficient balance."); balances[msg.sender] -= amount; balances[receiver] += amount; emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount); } 
The function first checks the pre-conditions, then updates the storage (i.e. balances) and finally publishes the post-condition as the Sent event. The gas which is consumed by the transaction is sent to the miner as a reward for executing this transaction.
Unlike Ethereum, a transaction in Ergo is a data structure holding a list of input coins which it spends and a list of output coins which it creates preserving the total balances of ERGs and tokens (in which Ergo is similar to Bitcoin).
Turning back to the example above, since Ergo natively supports tokens, therefore for this specific example of sending tokens we don't need to write any code in ErgoScript. Instead we need to create the ‘send’ transaction shown in the following figure, which describes the same token transfer but declaratively.
https://preview.redd.it/id5kjdgn9tv41.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=31b937d7ad0af4afe94f4d023e8c90c97c8aed2e
The picture visually describes the following steps, which the network user needs to perform:
  1. Select unspent sender's boxes, containing in total tB >= amount of tokens and B >= txFee + minErg ERGs.
  2. Create an output target box which is protected by the receiver public key with minErg ERGs and amount of T tokens.
  3. Create one fee output protected by the minerFee contract with txFee ERGs.
  4. Create one change output protected by the sender public key, containing B - minErg - txFee ERGs and tB - amount of T tokens.
  5. Create a new transaction, sign it using the sender's secret key and send to the Ergo network.
What is important to understand here is that all of these steps are preformed off-chain (for example using Appkit Transaction API) by the user's application. Ergo network nodes don't need to repeat this transaction creation process, they only need to validate the already formed transaction. ErgoScript contracts are stored in the inputs of the transaction and check spending conditions. The node executes the contracts on-chain when the transaction is validated. The transaction is valid if all of the conditions are satisfied.
Thus, in Ethereum when we “send amount from sender to recipient” we are literally editing balances and updating the storage with a concrete set of commands. This happens on-chain and thus a new transaction is also created on-chain as the result of this process.
In Ergo (as in Bitcoin) transactions are created off-chain and the network nodes only verify them. The effects of the transaction on the blockchain state is that input coins (or Boxes in Ergo's parlance) are removed and output boxes are added to the UTXO set.
In the example above we don't use an ErgoScript contract but instead assume a signature check is used as the spending pre-condition. However in more complex application scenarios we of course need to use ErgoScript which is what we are going to discuss next.
From Changing State to Checking Context
In the send function example we first checked the pre-condition (require(amount <= balances[msg.sender],...) ) and then changed the state (i.e. update balances balances[msg.sender] -= amount ). This is typical in Ethereum transactions. Before we change anything we need to check if it is valid to do so.
In Ergo, as we discussed previously, the state (i.e. UTXO set of boxes) is changed implicitly when a valid transaction is included in a block. Thus we only need to check the pre-conditions before the transaction can be added to the block. This is what ErgoScript contracts do.
It is not possible to “change the state” in ErgoScript because it is a language to check pre-conditions for spending coins. ErgoScript is a purely functional language without side effects that operates on immutable data values. This means all the inputs, outputs and other transaction parameters available in a script are immutable. This, among other things, makes ErgoScript a very simple language that is easy to learn and safe to use. Similar to Bitcoin, each input box contains a script, which should return the true value in order to 1) allow spending of the box (i.e. removing from the UTXO set) and 2) adding the transaction to the block.
If we are being pedantic, it is therefore incorrect (strictly speaking) to think of ErgoScript as the language of Ergo contracts, because it is the language of propositions (logical predicates, formulas, etc.) which protect boxes from “illegal” spending. Unlike Bitcoin, in Ergo the whole transaction and a part of the current blockchain context is available to every script. Therefore each script may check which outputs are created by the transaction, their ERG and token amounts (we will use this capability in our example DEX contracts), current block number etc.
In ErgoScript you define the conditions of whether changes (i.e. coin spending) are allowed to happen in a given context. This is in contrast to programming the changes imperatively in the code of a contract.
While Ergo's transaction model unlocks a whole range of applications like (DEX, DeFi Apps, LETS, etc), designing contracts as pre-conditions for coin spending (or guarding scripts) directly is not intuitive. In the next sections we will consider a useful graphical notation to design contracts declaratively using FlowCard Diagrams, which is a visual representation of executable components (FlowCards).
FlowCards aim to radically simplify dApp development on the Ergo platform by providing a high-level declarative language, execution runtime, storage format and a graphical notation.
We will start with a high level of diagrams and go down to FlowCard specification.
FlowCard Diagrams
The idea behind FlowCard diagrams is based on the following observations: 1) An Ergo box is immutable and can only be spent in the transaction which uses it as an input. 2) We therefore can draw a flow of boxes through transactions, so that boxes flowing in to the transaction are spent and those flowing out are created and added to the UTXO. 3) A transaction from this perspective is simply a transformer of old boxes to the new ones preserving the balances of ERGs and tokens involved.
The following figure shows the main elements of the Ergo transaction we've already seen previously (now under the name of FlowCard Diagram).
https://preview.redd.it/9kcxl11o9tv41.png?width=1304&format=png&auto=webp&s=378a7f50769292ca94de35ff597dc1a44af56d14
There is a strictly defined meaning (semantics) behind every element of the diagram, so that the diagram is a visual representation (or a view) of the underlying executable component (called FlowCard).
The FlowCard can be used as a reusable component of an Ergo dApp to create and initiate the transaction on the Ergo blockchain. We will discuss this in the coming sections.
Now let's look at the individual pieces of the FlowCard diagram one by one.
  1. Name and Parameters
Each flow card is given a name and a list of typed parameters. This is similar to a template with parameters. In the above figure we can see the Send flow card which has five parameters. The parameters are used in the specification.
  1. Contract Wallet
This is a key element of the flow card. Every box has a guarding script. Often it is the script that checks a signature against a public key. This script is trivial in ErgoScript and is defined like the def pk(pubkey: Address) = { pubkey } template where pubkey is a parameter of the type Address . In the figure, the script template is applied to the parameter pk(sender) and thus a concrete wallet contract is obtained. Therefore pk(sender) and pk(receiver) yield different scripts and represent different wallets on the diagram, even though they use the same template.
Contract Wallet contains a set of all UTXO boxes which have a given script derived from the given script template using flow card parameters. For example, in the figure, the template is pk and parameter pubkey is substituted with the `sender’ flow card parameter.
  1. Contract
Even though a contract is a property of a box, on the diagram we group the boxes by their contracts, therefore it looks like the boxes belong to the contracts, rather than the contracts belong to the boxes. In the example, we have three instantiated contracts pk(sender) , pk(receiver) and minerFee . Note, that pk(sender) is the instantiation of the pk template with the concrete parameter sender and minerFee is the instantiation of the pre-defined contract which protects the miner reward boxes.
  1. Box name
In the diagram we can give each box a name. Besides readability of the diagram, we also use the name as a synonym of a more complex indexed access to the box in the contract. For example, change is the name of the box, which can also be used in the ErgoScript conditions instead of OUTPUTS(2) . We also use box names to associate spending conditions with the boxes.
  1. Boxes in the wallet
In the diagram, we show boxes (darker rectangles) as belonging to the contract wallets (lighter rectangles). Each such box rectangle is connected with a grey transaction rectangle by either orange or green arrows or both. An output box (with an incoming green arrow) may include many lines of text where each line specifies a condition which should be checked as part of the transaction. The first line specifies the condition on the amount of ERG which should be placed in the box. Other lines may take one of the following forms:
  1. amount: TOKEN - the box should contain the given amount of the given TOKEN
  2. R == value - the box should contain the given value of the given register R
  3. boxName ? condition - the box named boxName should check condition in its script.
We discuss these conditions in the sections below.
  1. Amount of ERGs in the box
Each box should store a minimum amount of ERGs. This is checked when the creating transaction is validated. In the diagram the amount of ERGs is always shown as the first line (e.g. B: ERG or B - minErg - txFee ). The value type ascription B: ERG is optional and may be used for readability. When the value is given as a formula, then this formula should be respected by the transaction which creates the box.
It is important to understand that variables like amount and txFee are not named properties of the boxes. They are parameters of the whole diagram and representing some amounts. Or put it another way, they are shared parameters between transactions (e.g. Sell Order and Swap transactions from DEX example below share the tAmt parameter). So the same name is tied to the same value throughout the diagram (this is where the tooling would help a lot). However, when it comes to on-chain validation of those values, only explicit conditions which are marked with ? are transformed to ErgoScript. At the same time, all other conditions are ensured off-chain during transaction building (for example in an application using Appkit API) and transaction validation when it is added to the blockchain.
  1. Amount of T token
A box can store values of many tokens. The tokens on the diagram are named and a value variable may be associated with the token T using value: T expression. The value may be given by formula. If the formula is prefixed with a box name like boxName ? formula , then it is should also be checked in the guarding script of the boxName box. This additional specification is very convenient because 1) it allows to validate the visual design automatically, and 2) the conditions specified in the boxes of a diagram are enough to synthesize the necessary guarding scripts. (more about this below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”)
  1. Tx Inputs
Inputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by orange arrows. An input arrow may have a label of the following forms:
  1. [email protected] - optional name with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the target endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the INPUTS collection of the transaction.
  2. !action - is a property of the source of the arrow and gives a name for an alternative spending path of the box (we will see this in DEX example)
Because of alternative spending paths, a box may have many outgoing orange arrows, in which case they should be labeled with different actions.
  1. Transaction
A transaction spends input boxes and creates output boxes. The input boxes are given by the orange arrows and the labels are expected to put inputs at the right indexes in INPUTS collection. The output boxes are given by the green arrows. Each transaction should preserve a strict balance of ERG values (sum of inputs == sum of outputs) and for each token the sum of inputs >= the sum of outputs. The design diagram requires an explicit specification of the ERG and token values for all of the output boxes to avoid implicit errors and ensure better readability.
  1. Tx Outputs
Outputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by green arrows. An output arrow may have a label of the following [email protected] , where an optional name is accompanied with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the source endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of the related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction.
Example: Decentralized Exchange (DEX)
Now let's use the above described notation to design a FlowCard for a DEX dApp. It is simple enough yet also illustrates all of the key features of FlowCard diagrams which we've introduced in the previous section.
The dApp scenario is shown in the figure below: There are three participants (buyer, seller and DEX) of the DEX dApp and five different transaction types, which are created by participants. The buyer wants to swap ergAmt of ERGs for tAmt of TID tokens (or vice versa, the seller wants to sell TID tokens for ERGs, who sends the order first doesn't matter). Both the buyer and the seller can cancel their orders any time. The DEX off-chain matching service can find matching orders and create the Swap transaction to complete the exchange.
The following diagram fully (and formally) specifies all of the five transactions that must be created off-chain by the DEX dApp. It also specifies all of the spending conditions that should be verified on-chain.

https://preview.redd.it/fnt5f4qp9tv41.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=34f145f9a6d622454906857e645def2faba057bd
Let's discuss the FlowCard diagram and the logic of each transaction in details:
Buy Order Transaction
A buyer creates a Buy Order transaction. The transaction spends E amount of ERGs (which we will write E: ERG ) from one or more boxes in the pk(buyer) wallet. The transaction creates a bid box with ergAmt: ERG protected by the buyOrder script. The buyOrder script is synthesized from the specification (see below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”) either manually or automatically by a tool. Even though we don't need to define the buyOrder script explicitly during designing, at run time the bid box should contain the buyOrder script as the guarding proposition (which checks the box spending conditions), otherwise the conditions specified in the diagram will not be checked.
The change box is created to make the input and output sums of the transaction balanced. The transaction fee box is omitted because it can be added automatically by the tools. In practice, however, the designer can add the fee box explicitly to the a diagram. It covers the cases of more complex transactions (like Swap) where there are many ways to pay the transaction fee.
Cancel Buy, Cancel Sell Transactions
At any time, the buyer can cancel the order by sending CancelBuy transaction. The transaction should satisfy the guarding buyOrder contract which protects the bid box. As you can see on the diagram, both the Cancel and the Swap transactions can spend the bid box. When a box has spending alternatives (or spending paths) then each alternative is identified by a unique name prefixed with ! (!cancel and !swap for the bid box). Each alternative path has specific spending conditions. In our example, when the Cancel Buy transaction spends the bid box the ?buyer condition should be satisfied, which we read as “the signature for the buyer address should be presented in the transaction”. Therefore, only buyer can cancel the buy order. This “signature” condition is only required for the !cancel alternative spending path and not required for !swap .
Sell Order Transaction
The Sell Order transaction is similar to the BuyOrder in that it deals with tokens in addition to ERGs. The transaction spends E: ERG and T: TID tokens from seller's wallet (specified as pk(seller) contract). The two outputs are ask and change . The change is a standard box to balance transaction. The ask box keeps tAmt: TID tokens for the exchange and minErg: ERG - the minimum amount of ERGs required in every box.
Swap Transaction
This is a key transaction in the DEX dApp scenario. The transaction has several spending conditions on the input boxes and those conditions are included in the buyOrder and sellOrder scripts (which are verified when the transaction is added to the blockchain). However, on the diagram those conditions are not specified in the bid and ask boxes, they are instead defined in the output boxes of the transaction.
This is a convention for improved usability because most of the conditions relate to the properties of the output boxes. We could specify those properties in the bid box, but then we would have to use more complex expressions.
Let's consider the output created by the arrow labeled with [email protected] . This label tells us that the output is at the index 0 in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction and that in the diagram we can refer to this box by the buyerOut name. Thus we can label both the box itself and the arrow to give the box a name.
The conditions shown in the buyerOut box have the form bid ? condition , which means they should be verified on-chain in order to spend the bid box. The conditions have the following meaning:
  • tAmt: TID requires the box to have tAmt amount of TID token
  • R4 == bid.id requires R4 register in the box to be equal to id of the bid box.
  • script == buyer requires the buyerOut box to have the script of the wallet where it is located on the diagram, i.e. pk(buyer)
Similar properties are added to the sellerOut box, which is specified to be at index 1 and the name is given to it using the label on the box itself, rather than on the arrow.
The Swap transaction spends two boxes bid and ask using the !swap spending path on both, however unlike !cancel the conditions on the path are not specified. This is where the bid ? and ask ? prefixes come into play. They are used so that the conditions listed in the buyerOut and sellerOut boxes are moved to the !swap spending path of the bid and ask boxes correspondingly.
If you look at the conditions of the output boxes, you will see that they exactly specify the swap of values between seller's and buyer's wallets. The buyer gets the necessary amount of TID token and seller gets the corresponding amount of ERGs. The Swap transaction is created when there are two matching boxes with buyOrder and sellOrder contracts.
From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts
What is interesting about FlowCard specifications is that we can use them to automatically generate the necessary ErgoTree scripts. With the appropriate tooling support this can be done automatically, but with the lack of thereof, it can be done manually. Thus, the FlowCard allows us to capture and visually represent all of the design choices and semantic details of an Ergo dApp.
What we are going to do next is to mechanically create the buyOrder contract from the information given in the DEX flow card.
Recall that each script is a proposition (boolean valued expression) which should evaluate to true to allow spending of the box. When we have many conditions to be met at the same time we can combine them in a logical formula using the AND binary operation, and if we have alternatives (not necessarily exclusive) we can put them into the OR operation.
The buyOrder box has the alternative spending paths !cancel and !swap . Thus the ErgoScript code should have OR operation with two arguments - one for each spending path.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = {} val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
The formula for the cancelCondition expression is given in the !cancel spending path of the buyOrder box. We can directly include it in the script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
For the !swap spending path of the buyOrder box the conditions are specified in the buyerOut output box of the Swap transaction. If we simply include them in the swapCondition then we get a syntactically incorrect script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = { tAmt: TID && R4 == bid.id && @contract } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
We can however translate the conditions from the diagram syntax to ErgoScript expressions using the following simple rules
  1. [email protected] ==> val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0)
  2. tAmt: TID ==> tid._2 == tAmt where tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID)
  3. R4 == bid.id ==> R4 == SELF.id where R4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]].get
  4. script == buyer ==> buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes
Note, in the diagram TID represents a token id, but ErgoScript doesn't have access to the tokens by the ids so we cannot write tokens.getByKey(TID) . For this reason, when the diagram is translated into ErgoScript, TID becomes a named constant of the index in tokens collection of the box. The concrete value of the constant is assigned when the BuyOrder transaction with the buyOrder box is created. The correspondence and consistency between the actual tokenId, the TID constant and the actual tokens of the buyerOut box is ensured by the off-chain application code, which is completely possible since all of the transactions are created by the application using FlowCard as a guiding specification. This may sound too complicated, but this is part of the translation from diagram specification to actual executable application code, most of which can be automated.
After the transformation we can obtain a correct script which checks all the required preconditions for spending the buyOrder box.
/** buyOrder contract */ def DEX(buyer: Addrss, seller: Address, TID: Int, ergAmt: Long, tAmt: Long) { val cancelCondition: SigmaProp = { buyer } // verify buyer's sig (ProveDlog) val swapCondition = OUTPUTS.size > 0 && { // securing OUTPUTS access val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0) // from [email protected] buyerOut.tokens.size > TID && { // securing tokens access val tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID) val regR4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]] regR4.isDefined && { // securing R4 access val R4 = regR4.get tid._2 == tAmt && // from tAmt: TID R4 == SELF.id && // from R4 == bid.id buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes // from script == buyer } } } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
A similar script for the sellOrder box can be obtained using the same translation rules. With the help of the tooling the code of contracts can be mechanically generated from the diagram specification.
Conclusions
Declarative programming models have already won the battle against imperative programming in many application domains like Big Data, Stream Processing, Deep Learning, Databases, etc. Ergo is pioneering the declarative model of dApp development as a better and safer alternative to the now popular imperative model of smart contracts.
The concept of FlowCard shifts the focus from writing ErgoScript contracts to the overall flow of values (hence the name), in such a way, that ErgoScript can always be generated from them. You will never need to look at the ErgoScript code once the tooling is in place.
Here are the possible next steps for future work:
  1. Storage format for FlowCard Spec and the corresponding EIP standardized file format (Json/XML/Protobuf). This will allow various tools (Diagram Editor, Runtime, dApps etc) to create and use *.flowcard files.
  2. FlowCard Viewer, which can generate the diagrams from *.flowcard files.
  3. FlowCard Runtime, which can run *.flowcard files, create and send transactions to Ergo network.
  4. FlowCard Designer Tool, which can simplify development of complex diagrams . This will make designing and validation of Ergo contracts a pleasant experience, more like drawing rather than coding. In addition, the correctness of the whole dApp scenario can be verified and controlled by the tooling.
submitted by Guilty_Pea to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps

FlowCards: A Declarative Framework for Development of Ergo dApps
Introduction
ErgoScript is the smart contract language used by the Ergo blockchain. While it has concise syntax adopted from Scala/Kotlin, it still may seem confusing at first because conceptually ErgoScript is quite different compared to conventional languages which we all know and love. This is because Ergo is a UTXO based blockchain, whereas smart contracts are traditionally associated with account based systems like Ethereum. However, Ergo's transaction model has many advantages over the account based model and with the right approach it can even be significantly easier to develop Ergo contracts than to write and debug Solidity code.
Below we will cover the key aspects of the Ergo contract model which makes it different:
Paradigm
The account model of Ethereum is imperative. This means that the typical task of sending coins from Alice to Bob requires changing the balances in storage as a series of operations. Ergo's UTXO based programming model on the other hand is declarative. ErgoScript contracts specify conditions for a transaction to be accepted by the blockchain (not changes to be made in the storage state as result of the contract execution).
Scalability
In the account model of Ethereum both storage changes and validity checks are performed on-chain during code execution. In contrast, Ergo transactions are created off-chain and only validation checks are performed on-chain thus reducing the amount of operations performed by every node on the network. In addition, due to immutability of the transaction graph, various optimization strategies are possible to improve throughput of transactions per second in the network. Light verifying nodes are also possible thus further facilitating scalability and accessibility of the network.
Shared state
The account-based model is reliant on shared mutable state which is known to lead to complex semantics (and subtle million dollar bugs) in the context of concurrent/ distributed computation. Ergo's model is based on an immutable graph of transactions. This approach, inherited from Bitcoin, plays well with the concurrent and distributed nature of blockchains and facilitates light trustless clients.
Expressive Power
Ethereum advocated execution of a turing-complete language on the blockchain. It theoretically promised unlimited potential, however in practice severe limitations came to light from excessive blockchain bloat, subtle multi-million dollar bugs, gas costs which limit contract complexity, and other such problems. Ergo on the flip side extends UTXO to enable turing-completeness while limiting the complexity of the ErgoScript language itself. The same expressive power is achieved in a different and more semantically sound way.
With the all of the above points, it should be clear that there are a lot of benefits to the model Ergo is using. In the rest of this article I will introduce you to the concept of FlowCards - a dApp developer component which allows for designing complex Ergo contracts in a declarative and visual way.

From Imperative to Declarative

In the imperative programming model of Ethereum a transaction is a sequence of operations executed by the Ethereum VM. The following Solidity function implements a transfer of tokens from sender to receiver . The transaction starts when sender calls this function on an instance of a contract and ends when the function returns.
// Sends an amount of existing coins from any caller to an address function send(address receiver, uint amount) public { require(amount <= balances[msg.sender], "Insufficient balance."); balances[msg.sender] -= amount; balances[receiver] += amount; emit Sent(msg.sender, receiver, amount); } 
The function first checks the pre-conditions, then updates the storage (i.e. balances) and finally publishes the post-condition as the Sent event. The gas which is consumed by the transaction is sent to the miner as a reward for executing this transaction.
Unlike Ethereum, a transaction in Ergo is a data structure holding a list of input coins which it spends and a list of output coins which it creates preserving the total balances of ERGs and tokens (in which Ergo is similar to Bitcoin).
Turning back to the example above, since Ergo natively supports tokens, therefore for this specific example of sending tokens we don't need to write any code in ErgoScript. Instead we need to create the ‘send’ transaction shown in the following figure, which describes the same token transfer but declaratively.
https://preview.redd.it/sxs3kesvrsv41.png?width=1348&format=png&auto=webp&s=582382bc26912ff79114d831d937d94b6988e69f
The picture visually describes the following steps, which the network user needs to perform:
  1. Select unspent sender's boxes, containing in total tB >= amount of tokens and B >= txFee + minErg ERGs.
  2. Create an output target box which is protected by the receiver public key with minErg ERGs and amount of T tokens.
  3. Create one fee output protected by the minerFee contract with txFee ERGs.
  4. Create one change output protected by the sender public key, containing B - minErg - txFee ERGs and tB - amount of T tokens.
  5. Create a new transaction, sign it using the sender's secret key and send to the Ergo network.
What is important to understand here is that all of these steps are preformed off-chain (for example using Appkit Transaction API) by the user's application. Ergo network nodes don't need to repeat this transaction creation process, they only need to validate the already formed transaction. ErgoScript contracts are stored in the inputs of the transaction and check spending conditions. The node executes the contracts on-chain when the transaction is validated. The transaction is valid if all of the conditions are satisfied.
Thus, in Ethereum when we “send amount from sender to recipient” we are literally editing balances and updating the storage with a concrete set of commands. This happens on-chain and thus a new transaction is also created on-chain as the result of this process.
In Ergo (as in Bitcoin) transactions are created off-chain and the network nodes only verify them. The effects of the transaction on the blockchain state is that input coins (or Boxes in Ergo's parlance) are removed and output boxes are added to the UTXO set.
In the example above we don't use an ErgoScript contract but instead assume a signature check is used as the spending pre-condition. However in more complex application scenarios we of course need to use ErgoScript which is what we are going to discuss next.

From Changing State to Checking Context

In the send function example we first checked the pre-condition (require(amount <= balances[msg.sender],...) ) and then changed the state (i.e. update balances balances[msg.sender] -= amount ). This is typical in Ethereum transactions. Before we change anything we need to check if it is valid to do so.
In Ergo, as we discussed previously, the state (i.e. UTXO set of boxes) is changed implicitly when a valid transaction is included in a block. Thus we only need to check the pre-conditions before the transaction can be added to the block. This is what ErgoScript contracts do.
It is not possible to “change the state” in ErgoScript because it is a language to check pre-conditions for spending coins. ErgoScript is a purely functional language without side effects that operates on immutable data values. This means all the inputs, outputs and other transaction parameters available in a script are immutable. This, among other things, makes ErgoScript a very simple language that is easy to learn and safe to use. Similar to Bitcoin, each input box contains a script, which should return the true value in order to 1) allow spending of the box (i.e. removing from the UTXO set) and 2) adding the transaction to the block.
If we are being pedantic, it is therefore incorrect (strictly speaking) to think of ErgoScript as the language of Ergo contracts, because it is the language of propositions (logical predicates, formulas, etc.) which protect boxes from “illegal” spending. Unlike Bitcoin, in Ergo the whole transaction and a part of the current blockchain context is available to every script. Therefore each script may check which outputs are created by the transaction, their ERG and token amounts (we will use this capability in our example DEX contracts), current block number etc.
In ErgoScript you define the conditions of whether changes (i.e. coin spending) are allowed to happen in a given context. This is in contrast to programming the changes imperatively in the code of a contract.
While Ergo's transaction model unlocks a whole range of applications like (DEX, DeFi Apps, LETS, etc), designing contracts as pre-conditions for coin spending (or guarding scripts) directly is not intuitive. In the next sections we will consider a useful graphical notation to design contracts declaratively using FlowCard Diagrams, which is a visual representation of executable components (FlowCards).
FlowCards aim to radically simplify dApp development on the Ergo platform by providing a high-level declarative language, execution runtime, storage format and a graphical notation.
We will start with a high level of diagrams and go down to FlowCard specification.

FlowCard Diagrams

The idea behind FlowCard diagrams is based on the following observations: 1) An Ergo box is immutable and can only be spent in the transaction which uses it as an input. 2) We therefore can draw a flow of boxes through transactions, so that boxes flowing in to the transaction are spent and those flowing out are created and added to the UTXO. 3) A transaction from this perspective is simply a transformer of old boxes to the new ones preserving the balances of ERGs and tokens involved.
The following figure shows the main elements of the Ergo transaction we've already seen previously (now under the name of FlowCard Diagram).
https://preview.redd.it/06aqkcd1ssv41.png?width=1304&format=png&auto=webp&s=106eda730e0526919aabd5af9596b97e45b69777
There is a strictly defined meaning (semantics) behind every element of the diagram, so that the diagram is a visual representation (or a view) of the underlying executable component (called FlowCard).
The FlowCard can be used as a reusable component of an Ergo dApp to create and initiate the transaction on the Ergo blockchain. We will discuss this in the coming sections.
Now let's look at the individual pieces of the FlowCard diagram one by one.
1. Name and Parameters
Each flow card is given a name and a list of typed parameters. This is similar to a template with parameters. In the above figure we can see the Send flow card which has five parameters. The parameters are used in the specification.
2. Contract Wallet
This is a key element of the flow card. Every box has a guarding script. Often it is the script that checks a signature against a public key. This script is trivial in ErgoScript and is defined like the def pk(pubkey: Address) = { pubkey } template where pubkey is a parameter of the type Address . In the figure, the script template is applied to the parameter pk(sender) and thus a concrete wallet contract is obtained. Therefore pk(sender) and pk(receiver) yield different scripts and represent different wallets on the diagram, even though they use the same template.
Contract Wallet contains a set of all UTXO boxes which have a given script derived from the given script template using flow card parameters. For example, in the figure, the template is pk and parameter pubkey is substituted with the `sender’ flow card parameter.
3. Contract
Even though a contract is a property of a box, on the diagram we group the boxes by their contracts, therefore it looks like the boxes belong to the contracts, rather than the contracts belong to the boxes. In the example, we have three instantiated contracts pk(sender) , pk(receiver) and minerFee . Note, that pk(sender) is the instantiation of the pk template with the concrete parameter sender and minerFee is the instantiation of the pre-defined contract which protects the miner reward boxes.
4. Box name
In the diagram we can give each box a name. Besides readability of the diagram, we also use the name as a synonym of a more complex indexed access to the box in the contract. For example, change is the name of the box, which can also be used in the ErgoScript conditions instead of OUTPUTS(2) . We also use box names to associate spending conditions with the boxes.
5. Boxes in the wallet
In the diagram, we show boxes (darker rectangles) as belonging to the contract wallets (lighter rectangles). Each such box rectangle is connected with a grey transaction rectangle by either orange or green arrows or both. An output box (with an incoming green arrow) may include many lines of text where each line specifies a condition which should be checked as part of the transaction. The first line specifies the condition on the amount of ERG which should be placed in the box. Other lines may take one of the following forms:
  1. amount: TOKEN - the box should contain the given amount of the given TOKEN
  2. R == value - the box should contain the given value of the given register R
  3. boxName ? condition - the box named boxName should check condition in its script.
We discuss these conditions in the sections below.
6. Amount of ERGs in the box
Each box should store a minimum amount of ERGs. This is checked when the creating transaction is validated. In the diagram the amount of ERGs is always shown as the first line (e.g. B: ERG or B - minErg - txFee ). The value type ascription B: ERG is optional and may be used for readability. When the value is given as a formula, then this formula should be respected by the transaction which creates the box.
It is important to understand that variables like amount and txFee are not named properties of the boxes. They are parameters of the whole diagram and representing some amounts. Or put it another way, they are shared parameters between transactions (e.g. Sell Order and Swap transactions from DEX example below share the tAmt parameter). So the same name is tied to the same value throughout the diagram (this is where the tooling would help a lot). However, when it comes to on-chain validation of those values, only explicit conditions which are marked with ? are transformed to ErgoScript. At the same time, all other conditions are ensured off-chain during transaction building (for example in an application using Appkit API) and transaction validation when it is added to the blockchain.
7. Amount of T token
A box can store values of many tokens. The tokens on the diagram are named and a value variable may be associated with the token T using value: T expression. The value may be given by formula. If the formula is prefixed with a box name like boxName ? formula , then it is should also be checked in the guarding script of the boxName box. This additional specification is very convenient because 1) it allows to validate the visual design automatically, and 2) the conditions specified in the boxes of a diagram are enough to synthesize the necessary guarding scripts. (more about this below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”)
8. Tx Inputs
Inputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by orange arrows. An input arrow may have a label of the following forms:
  1. [email protected] - optional name with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the target endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the INPUTS collection of the transaction.
  2. !action - is a property of the source of the arrow and gives a name for an alternative spending path of the box (we will see this in DEX example)
Because of alternative spending paths, a box may have many outgoing orange arrows, in which case they should be labeled with different actions.
9. Transaction
A transaction spends input boxes and creates output boxes. The input boxes are given by the orange arrows and the labels are expected to put inputs at the right indexes in INPUTS collection. The output boxes are given by the green arrows. Each transaction should preserve a strict balance of ERG values (sum of inputs == sum of outputs) and for each token the sum of inputs >= the sum of outputs. The design diagram requires an explicit specification of the ERG and token values for all of the output boxes to avoid implicit errors and ensure better readability.
10. Tx Outputs
Outputs are connected to the corresponding transaction by green arrows. An output arrow may have a label of the following [email protected] , where an optional name is accompanied with an index i.e. [email protected] or u/2 . This is a property of the source endpoint of the arrow. The name is used in conditions of the related boxes and the index is the position of the corresponding box in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction.

Example: Decentralized Exchange (DEX)

Now let's use the above described notation to design a FlowCard for a DEX dApp. It is simple enough yet also illustrates all of the key features of FlowCard diagrams which we've introduced in the previous section.
The dApp scenario is shown in the figure below: There are three participants (buyer, seller and DEX) of the DEX dApp and five different transaction types, which are created by participants. The buyer wants to swap ergAmt of ERGs for tAmt of TID tokens (or vice versa, the seller wants to sell TID tokens for ERGs, who sends the order first doesn't matter). Both the buyer and the seller can cancel their orders any time. The DEX off-chain matching service can find matching orders and create the Swap transaction to complete the exchange.
The following diagram fully (and formally) specifies all of the five transactions that must be created off-chain by the DEX dApp. It also specifies all of the spending conditions that should be verified on-chain.

https://preview.redd.it/piogz0v9ssv41.png?width=1614&format=png&auto=webp&s=e1b503a635ad3d138ef91e2f0c3b726e78958646
Let's discuss the FlowCard diagram and the logic of each transaction in details:
Buy Order Transaction
A buyer creates a Buy Order transaction. The transaction spends E amount of ERGs (which we will write E: ERG ) from one or more boxes in the pk(buyer) wallet. The transaction creates a bid box with ergAmt: ERG protected by the buyOrder script. The buyOrder script is synthesized from the specification (see below at “From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts”) either manually or automatically by a tool. Even though we don't need to define the buyOrder script explicitly during designing, at run time the bid box should contain the buyOrder script as the guarding proposition (which checks the box spending conditions), otherwise the conditions specified in the diagram will not be checked.
The change box is created to make the input and output sums of the transaction balanced. The transaction fee box is omitted because it can be added automatically by the tools. In practice, however, the designer can add the fee box explicitly to the a diagram. It covers the cases of more complex transactions (like Swap) where there are many ways to pay the transaction fee.
Cancel Buy, Cancel Sell Transactions
At any time, the buyer can cancel the order by sending CancelBuy transaction. The transaction should satisfy the guarding buyOrder contract which protects the bid box. As you can see on the diagram, both the Cancel and the Swap transactions can spend the bid box. When a box has spending alternatives (or spending paths) then each alternative is identified by a unique name prefixed with ! (!cancel and !swap for the bid box). Each alternative path has specific spending conditions. In our example, when the Cancel Buy transaction spends the bid box the ?buyer condition should be satisfied, which we read as “the signature for the buyer address should be presented in the transaction”. Therefore, only buyer can cancel the buy order. This “signature” condition is only required for the !cancel alternative spending path and not required for !swap .
Sell Order Transaction
The Sell Order transaction is similar to the BuyOrder in that it deals with tokens in addition to ERGs. The transaction spends E: ERG and T: TID tokens from seller's wallet (specified as pk(seller) contract). The two outputs are ask and change . The change is a standard box to balance transaction. The ask box keeps tAmt: TID tokens for the exchange and minErg: ERG - the minimum amount of ERGs required in every box.
Swap Transaction
This is a key transaction in the DEX dApp scenario. The transaction has several spending conditions on the input boxes and those conditions are included in the buyOrder and sellOrder scripts (which are verified when the transaction is added to the blockchain). However, on the diagram those conditions are not specified in the bid and ask boxes, they are instead defined in the output boxes of the transaction.
This is a convention for improved usability because most of the conditions relate to the properties of the output boxes. We could specify those properties in the bid box, but then we would have to use more complex expressions.
Let's consider the output created by the arrow labeled with [email protected] . This label tells us that the output is at the index 0 in the OUTPUTS collection of the transaction and that in the diagram we can refer to this box by the buyerOut name. Thus we can label both the box itself and the arrow to give the box a name.
The conditions shown in the buyerOut box have the form bid ? condition , which means they should be verified on-chain in order to spend the bid box. The conditions have the following meaning:
  • tAmt: TID requires the box to have tAmt amount of TID token
  • R4 == bid.id requires R4 register in the box to be equal to id of the bid box.
  • script == buyer requires the buyerOut box to have the script of the wallet where it is located on the diagram, i.e. pk(buyer)
Similar properties are added to the sellerOut box, which is specified to be at index 1 and the name is given to it using the label on the box itself, rather than on the arrow.
The Swap transaction spends two boxes bid and ask using the !swap spending path on both, however unlike !cancel the conditions on the path are not specified. This is where the bid ? and ask ? prefixes come into play. They are used so that the conditions listed in the buyerOut and sellerOut boxes are moved to the !swap spending path of the bid and ask boxes correspondingly.
If you look at the conditions of the output boxes, you will see that they exactly specify the swap of values between seller's and buyer's wallets. The buyer gets the necessary amount of TID token and seller gets the corresponding amount of ERGs. The Swap transaction is created when there are two matching boxes with buyOrder and sellOrder contracts.

From Diagrams To ErgoScript Contracts

What is interesting about FlowCard specifications is that we can use them to automatically generate the necessary ErgoTree scripts. With the appropriate tooling support this can be done automatically, but with the lack of thereof, it can be done manually. Thus, the FlowCard allows us to capture and visually represent all of the design choices and semantic details of an Ergo dApp.
What we are going to do next is to mechanically create the buyOrder contract from the information given in the DEX flow card.
Recall that each script is a proposition (boolean valued expression) which should evaluate to true to allow spending of the box. When we have many conditions to be met at the same time we can combine them in a logical formula using the AND binary operation, and if we have alternatives (not necessarily exclusive) we can put them into the OR operation.
The buyOrder box has the alternative spending paths !cancel and !swap . Thus the ErgoScript code should have OR operation with two arguments - one for each spending path.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = {} val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
The formula for the cancelCondition expression is given in the !cancel spending path of the buyOrder box. We can directly include it in the script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = {} cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
For the !swap spending path of the buyOrder box the conditions are specified in the buyerOut output box of the Swap transaction. If we simply include them in the swapCondition then we get a syntactically incorrect script.
/** buyOrder contract */ { val cancelCondition = { buyer } val swapCondition = { tAmt: TID && R4 == bid.id && @contract } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
We can however translate the conditions from the diagram syntax to ErgoScript expressions using the following simple rules
  1. [email protected] ==> val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0)
  2. tAmt: TID ==> tid._2 == tAmt where tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID)
  3. R4 == bid.id ==> R4 == SELF.id where R4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]].get
  4. script == buyer ==> buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes
Note, in the diagram TID represents a token id, but ErgoScript doesn't have access to the tokens by the ids so we cannot write tokens.getByKey(TID) . For this reason, when the diagram is translated into ErgoScript, TID becomes a named constant of the index in tokens collection of the box. The concrete value of the constant is assigned when the BuyOrder transaction with the buyOrder box is created. The correspondence and consistency between the actual tokenId, the TID constant and the actual tokens of the buyerOut box is ensured by the off-chain application code, which is completely possible since all of the transactions are created by the application using FlowCard as a guiding specification. This may sound too complicated, but this is part of the translation from diagram specification to actual executable application code, most of which can be automated.
After the transformation we can obtain a correct script which checks all the required preconditions for spending the buyOrder box.
/** buyOrder contract */ def DEX(buyer: Addrss, seller: Address, TID: Int, ergAmt: Long, tAmt: Long) { val cancelCondition: SigmaProp = { buyer } // verify buyer's sig (ProveDlog) val swapCondition = OUTPUTS.size > 0 && { // securing OUTPUTS access val buyerOut = OUTPUTS(0) // from [email protected] buyerOut.tokens.size > TID && { // securing tokens access val tid = buyerOut.tokens(TID) val regR4 = buyerOut.R4[Coll[Byte]] regR4.isDefined && { // securing R4 access val R4 = regR4.get tid._2 == tAmt && // from tAmt: TID R4 == SELF.id && // from R4 == bid.id buyerOut.propositionBytes == buyer.propBytes // from script == buyer } } } cancelCondition || swapCondition } 
A similar script for the sellOrder box can be obtained using the same translation rules. With the help of the tooling the code of contracts can be mechanically generated from the diagram specification.

Conclusions

Declarative programming models have already won the battle against imperative programming in many application domains like Big Data, Stream Processing, Deep Learning, Databases, etc. Ergo is pioneering the declarative model of dApp development as a better and safer alternative to the now popular imperative model of smart contracts.
The concept of FlowCard shifts the focus from writing ErgoScript contracts to the overall flow of values (hence the name), in such a way, that ErgoScript can always be generated from them. You will never need to look at the ErgoScript code once the tooling is in place.
Here are the possible next steps for future work:
  1. Storage format for FlowCard Spec and the corresponding EIP standardized file format (Json/XML/Protobuf). This will allow various tools (Diagram Editor, Runtime, dApps etc) to create and use *.flowcard files.
  2. FlowCard Viewer, which can generate the diagrams from *.flowcard files.
  3. FlowCard Runtime, which can run *.flowcard files, create and send transactions to Ergo network.
  4. FlowCard Designer Tool, which can simplify development of complex diagrams . This will make designing and validation of Ergo contracts a pleasant experience, more like drawing rather than coding. In addition, the correctness of the whole dApp scenario can be verified and controlled by the tooling.
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